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文庙明伦堂
平遥文庙学宫   2019-10-28 10:52:43 作者:SystemMaster 来源:

儒学区在中轴线的第三进院落,此院大成殿的后墙中央写有一个硕大的“魁”字,喻为文庙的点睛之笔,它出自南宋著名丞相文天祥之手,是在乾隆年间由平遥人临摹上去的,所以它具有很高明的书法价值,很奇怪的是,这个“魁”字上方没有第一笔?当地人的解释就是希望本县考出来的那名状元来文庙祭孔之后再亲自添上去的,看得出来,当年的平遥人并没有在科场上夺魁。相反,在他们的思想观念中,经商是最能光宗耀祖的,都是要立志当上票号的掌柜的,很多尚未入学的孩子,已把经商视为成长之路,而非读书做官。祖祖辈辈留下的印象和理念就是“重商不轻学,重学为经商”走一条商学互补的路子,这是晋商和徽商最大的区别所在了。所以,晋商将古训“学而优则仕”改为了“学而优则商”在平遥我们看不到一座意气飞扬的科考牌坊因为平遥人的光荣和梦想是在商场,他们实现了自己的梦想,夺得了商业之魁,取得了商场中的第一。

现在看到前方有龙门坊,古代有“鲤鱼跳龙门”之说,跳过者为龙,跳不过者为鱼,每到科举前,各地乡民学子都是争先恐后地跳龙门,而且还有一定的讲究,一跳……二跳……

明伦堂是此院的主建筑,当年这里是高级老师讲课之所,现在开辟为孔子生平展。
明伦堂内正中央屏风上所雕的是布衣形象的孔子,据唐代著名画家吴道子之作而雕,旁边这幅对联是“博学笃志中庸治世,切问近思大道修身”告诉人应该用儒家思想的最高境界中庸之道来治国,以此建立和谐和平社会,但管理者在拥有才华的同时还应该有很高的道德水平,“大道修身”当两全齐美德齐兼备之时不应忘记横批上的四个字“一以贯之”
孔子是山东曲阜人,生于公元前551年,卒于公元前479年,享年73岁,他的一生并不是很平坦,今天后人对他的推崇和尊敬也是他生前未料到的。
孔夫子将他的一生概括为6个阶段,“吾十有五而志于学,三十而立、四十而不惑、五十而知天命、六十而耳顺、七十而随心所欲,不逾矩”这是一个粗略的人生坐标,在这个坐标上有几个重要阶段值得我们特别注意,究竟圣人所描绘的这个人生坐标对我们今天来讲有什么借鉴意义?
每个人都有理由去描述自己的理想,但这一切都要从社会化进程开始从一自然人转化为一个有社会规则制约的人,这就是学习的起点,孔子嘴里的“吾十有五而志于学”是他的学习起点,也是他对学生的一种要求,那么,在今天,什么样的学习才是最有效的?只有导致一个人整个价值体系重塑,行为方式改变得有效率,更敏捷,更合乎社会要求的学习才是好的学习。在这个信息时代的今天,我们要学的东西实在太多,现在学生不过“十五学”很多比五岁还要早就开始学习了,为什么呢?不少孩子会背圆周率,会背几十首几十首长诗等,但是这些对他们的一生真有用吗?这些向学是孔子所说的“为己之学”“学以致用”吗?“过犹不及”也是孔子的观点,再好的东西都有他的度,与其贪多嚼不烂,还不如把有限的知识融会贯通,孔子又说:“学而不思则罔,思而不学则怠”一定要边学边想运用,经过这样的学习、历练,逐渐地提升自己有所感悟,这样就走到了三十岁。
“三十而立”是我们常常挂于嘴边的一句话,几乎每个人到了这个年纪会扪心自问:我立起来了吗?那么怎样才算立起来了?是否有车、有房、有理想的职位就算立起来了呢?这是一种狭义的想法。“三十而立”的“立”字,首先是内在的立,然后才是在社会坐标上找到自己的位置,其实自信的阶段,这种自信不是要与很多处在的事物形成对立,而是形成一种融合与相互提升,我们知道“子不语怪、力、乱、神”孔子之所以不愿意提及鬼神着眼于现实的表现,他的这种态度,对我们今天仍有启发,在学习的时候,先要把我们生命中能够掌握的东西尽力能掌控,而不要超越年龄去考虑那些遥不可及的事,只有这样一点一点学起来到该立的年龄,才能真正立起来。
从“而立”之年步入了孔夫子所说的“不惑”之年,这应当是人生最好的一段时光,但每个人到了四十岁都能做到不惑吗?在现代社会,四十岁的中年人上有老下有小,工作上已经成为骨干,压力又非常大,在这样的环境中怎样才能做到内心不惶惑呢?一个人在三十岁以前是用加法生活的就是不断地从这个世界上收集他所需要的东西,比如经验、财富、情感、名誉等。但是物质上的东西越多,人就越容易迷惑,三十岁以后,就要开始用减法生活,要学会舍弃那些不是你心灵所需要的东西,那些不想交的朋友舍掉,不想做的事情拒绝,不要挣的钱不要,当敢于放弃,知道如何舍弃的时候才真正接近了不惑的状态,那么什么是不惑?就是人能够自觉按照中庸的理念去思念行事,即使外部世界给你许多不公平、打击,但你也能在一个坐标上迅速建立起自己应有的位置。
孔子所说的“知天命”,是人们常说的“命中有时终须有,命中无时莫强求”一个人到了五十岁就要知天命了吗?要回答这个问题首先要明白“知天命”是什么意思。“知天命”关键在于“知”字,要能够了解什么是自己的天命,当你真正认识到命运中的穷与富,人世间的好与坏,知道这一切都是很自然,那么你就能理性把握平静对待,用内心的一种定力去应对外界,可以做到不怨天、不尤人、不为外物所动,达到一种融合和提升,到了这种境界,也就该进入“耳顺”境界了。
“耳顺”就是无论什么样都能听进去,都能站在发言者的立场去想问题,但是在现实生活中,我们经常会遇到不顺心的事,听到不想听的话,如何真正做到耳顺呢?“耳顺”就是能够做到最大限度地尊重他人理解任何一种事情存在的道理,能虚心倾听各种声音,站在别人的立场上去了解他为什么这样说,这种境界用中国文字来表述就是“悲天悯人”。
当所有的规矩已经变为你的习惯时,你能做到从心所欲,可以说这就是为人所追求的最高境界但是这种境界看似平易,在此之前却要经历千锤百炼的,孔子所描述的自己的人生境界也是如此,越到后来越强调内心,越从容和缓,而在从容之前,也要经历千锤百练。

文房四宝中的第四宝就是砚,是磨墨、盛墨不可缺乏的文具,历史上最名贵的砚台是广东端砚、安徽歙砚、甘肃洮河砚、山西绛县澄泥砚,号称“四大名砚”,而端、歙则名列其首,更是饮誉中华。明清时期,砚不仅为书画时所用,更是馈赠朋友的佳品,因此装饰性比较强。 宋苏易简《文房四谱》中说:“四宝砚为首,笔墨兼纸,皆可随时取索,可终身与俱者,唯砚而已”。砚台在使用时和用完清洗都有一定的讲究,特别是清洗,古人有“宁可三日不沐面,不可三日不洗砚”的说法。与砚台配合使用的工具还有贮存砚水供磨墨用的砚滴,又叫水滴、书滴。 
中国传统文房用具,除了“四宝”之外,还包括了很多的辅助文具,如臂搁、墨盒、印泥、印泥盒等等,这些用具,所用材料有玉、石、金、银、铜、铁、象牙等多种,造型各异,雕琢精妙,可用可赏,故又称作文玩。



The Confucian school district is in the third entrance of the central axis. In the center of the back wall of Dacheng Hall, there is a huge "Que" character, which is the crowning touch of the Confucian Temple. It is from the hand of the famous Southern Song Dynasty, and it is in the Qianlong period. It was taken up by Pingyao people, so it has a very high value of calligraphy. It is very strange that there is no first pen above this word. The explanation of the locals is that I hope that the champion who came out of the county will come to the temple and then add it. I can see that the Pingyao people did not win the field. On the contrary, in their ideological concepts, business is the most versatile, and they are determined to be the shopkeepers of the ticket number. Many children who have not yet entered the school have regarded business as a path of growth rather than a book. The impressions and ideas left by the ancestors are that "the business is not light, the study is heavy, and the business is a business" is a way of complementing business and learning. This is the biggest difference between Shanxi merchants and Huizhou merchants. Therefore, the Shanxi merchants changed the ancient training "learning from the best" to "learning and doing business". In Pingyao, we can't see a high-spirited scientific research archway. Because the glory and dreams of Pingyao people are in the mall, they realized themselves. The dream, won the business leader, and achieved the first in the mall.


Now I see the Longmen Square in front. In ancient times, there was a saying that "the squid jumped the dragon door". The skipper was a dragon, and the jumper was a fish. Before the imperial examination, the local students were rushing to jump the dragon gate, and there was still a certain Exquisite, one jump... two jumps...


Ming Lun Tang is the main building of this school. It was the place where senior teachers gave lectures. Now it is opened as a life exhibition for Confucius.

Confucius, the image of the cloth, was carved on the central screen of the Minglun Hall. According to the works of the famous painter Wu Daozi of the Tang Dynasty, the couplet is next to the "Establishing the History of the World, Asking the Way to Slim" and telling people that it should To establish a harmonious and peaceful society by governing the country with the highest realm of Confucianism, but managers should have a high moral level while possessing talents, and “the road to self-cultivation” should not be used when both sides are perfect. It should be forgotten that the four words in the horizontal batch are "one consistent"

Confucius was a native of Qufu, Shandong Province. He was born in 551 BC and died in 479 BC. At the age of 73, his life was not very flat. Today's esteem and respect for him are also unanticipated during his lifetime.

Confucius summed up his life into six stages. "I have five and five ambitions to learn, thirty are standing, forty is not confusing, fifty is knowing destiny, sixty is pleasing, seventy is free, and it is not overwhelming. "This is a rough life coordinate. There are several important stages in this coordinate that deserve our special attention. What is the reference to the life coordinates depicted by the saints for us today?

Everyone has reason to describe their own ideals, but all of them must start from the process of socialization and transform from a natural person to a person with social rules. This is the starting point of learning, and there are five in my mouth. "Being willing to learn" is his starting point for learning, and also a requirement for his students. So, what kind of learning is the most effective today? Only learning that leads to the reshaping of a person's entire value system, behavioral change, efficiency, more agility, and socially responsive learning is good learning. Today in this information age, there are so many things we have to learn. Nowadays, students are learning more than the age of five, but why? Many children will recite the pi, and will recite dozens of dozens of long poems, etc., but are these really useful for their life? These studies are what Confucius said as "learning for oneself" and "learning to use it"? "It’s too late to be too much." Confucius’s point of view is that even the best things have his degree. Instead of chewing on it, it’s better to combine limited knowledge. Confucius said: “If you don’t think, then you don’t think, but you don’t learn. "You must learn while you want to use it. After such learning and experience, you gradually improve your feelings, and you will be thirty years old."

"Thirty stands" is a word that we often hang on our lips. Almost everyone at this age will ask themselves: Have I stood up? So what is it? Is there a car, a room, or an ideal position? This is a narrow idea. The word "立立" of "Thirty Stands" is first of all internal, and then it is to find its position on social coordinates. In fact, the stage of self-confidence is not to be opposed to many things that are in place, but Forming a kind of integration and mutual promotion, we know that "there is no such thing as ignorance, power, chaos, and god." Confucius is not willing to mention the performance of ghosts and gods in the eyes of reality. His attitude is still inspiring to us today. When learning, we must try our best to control what we can master in our lives, instead of going beyond age to consider those things that are out of reach. Only by learning the age of the establishment, can we really stand up.

From the year of "standing" into the year of Confucius's "no confusion", this should be the best time in life, but can everyone be confused when they are forty? In modern society, the 40-year-old middle-aged man has a small age, a job has become a backbone, and the pressure is very large. How can you be tempted in such an environment? A person who lives in Addition before the age of 30 is constantly collecting what he needs from the world, such as experience, wealth, emotion, reputation, and so on. But the more material things, the more easily people are confused. After the age of 30, they will start to use subtractive life. They must learn to abandon those things that are not what your heart needs, those that you don’t want to give up, things you don’t want to do. Refused, don't earn money, don't want to give up, know how to give up when you really get close to the state of no confusion, then what is not? That is, people can consciously follow the doctrine of the mean to think about acting. Even if the outside world gives you many unfair and blows, you can quickly establish your own position on a coordinate.

Confucius’s "knowing the destiny" is what people often say, "The hits must be there at the end, and the hits are forever." When a person reaches the age of 50, will he know the destiny? To answer this question, we must first understand what it means to know. The key to "knowing the destiny" lies in the word "know". To be able to understand what is your destiny, when you truly realize the poverty and wealth in the destiny, the good and the bad in the world, know that all this is natural, then you Being able to rationally grasp the calm treatment and use the inner strength of a certain force to deal with the outside world can be done without blaming the sky, not being especially human, not moving by foreign objects, reaching a kind of integration and promotion. Enter the realm of "ears".

"Early Shun" is that no matter what you can listen to, you can stand on the speaker's position to think about the problem, but in real life, we often encounter things that don't go well. If you don't want to hear it, how can you really do it? What about ear? "Early Shun" is the principle that can maximize the respect for others to understand the existence of any kind of thing, can listen to all kinds of voices humbly, and stand on the stand of others to understand why he said this. This kind of realm is expressed in Chinese characters. Sad and sorrowful."

When all the rules have become your habits, you can do what you want. It can be said that this is the highest realm that people are pursuing. But this kind of realm seems to be easy. Before that, it has to undergo a lot of hard work. Confucius described himself. The same is true of the realm of life. The more emphasis on the heart, the more calm and gentle, and before the calm, we must also experience a lot of hard work.


The fourth treasure in the four treasures of the Wenfang is the enamel, which is the stationery that is indispensable for grinding ink and ink. The most famous gongs in history are Guangdong Duanyi, Anhui 歙砚, Gansu Caohejing, Shanxi 绛县澄泥砚, known as the “Four Famous Names”. "砚", while Duan and Yan are ranked first, and they are famous in China. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, 砚 was not only used for painting and calligraphy, but also a gift for friends, so it was more decorative. Song Suyi's "The Four Books of the Wenfang" said: "The four treasures are headed, and both ink and paper can be taken at any time, and they can be used for life and forever." There are certain restrictions on the use of the Yongtai in use and cleaning, especially the cleaning. The ancients have the saying that "it is better not to wash the face for three days, not to wash for three days." The tools used in conjunction with the platform are also used to store dripping water for dripping, also called water droplets and book drops.

In addition to the "four treasures", traditional Chinese stationery, including a lot of auxiliary stationery, such as arm rest, ink cartridges, ink pad, ink pad, etc., these materials, jade, stone, gold, silver, copper , iron, ivory, and so on, different shapes, exquisite carving, can be used for appreciation, it is also known as wenwan.

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