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平遥文庙导游词3
平遥文庙学宫   2019-10-28 10:37:20 作者:SystemMaster 来源:
       文房四宝中的第四宝就是砚,是磨墨、盛墨不可缺乏的文具,历史上最名贵的砚台是广东端砚、安徽歙砚、甘肃洮河砚、山西绛县澄泥砚,号称“四大名砚”,而端、歙则名列其首,更是饮誉中华。明清时期,砚不仅为书画时所用,更是馈赠朋友的佳品,因此装饰性比较强。 宋苏易简《文房四谱》中说:“四宝砚为首,笔墨兼纸,皆可随时取索,可终身与俱者,唯砚而已”。砚台在使用时和用完清洗都有一定的讲究,特别是清洗,古人有“宁可三日不沐面,不可三日不洗砚”的说法。与砚台配合使用的工具还有贮存砚水供磨墨用的砚滴,又叫水滴、书滴。


The fourth treasure in the four treasures of the Wenfang is the enamel, which is the stationery that is indispensable for grinding ink and ink. The most famous gongs in history are Guangdong Duanyi, Anhui 歙砚, Gansu Caohejing, Shanxi 绛县澄泥砚, known as the “Four Famous Names”. "砚", while Duan and Yan are ranked first, and they are famous in China. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, 砚 was not only used for painting and calligraphy, but also a gift for friends, so it was more decorative. Song Suyi's "The Four Books of the Wenfang" said: "The four treasures are headed, and both ink and paper can be taken at any time, and they can be used for life and forever." There are certain restrictions on the use of the Yongtai in use and cleaning, especially the cleaning. The ancients have the saying that "it is better not to wash the face for three days, not to wash for three days." The tools used in conjunction with the platform are also used to store dripping water for dripping, also called water droplets and book drops.


  中国传统文房用具,除了“四宝”之外,还包括了很多的辅助文具,如臂搁、墨盒、印泥、印泥盒等等,这些用具,所用材料有玉、石、金、银、铜、铁、象牙等多种,造型各异,雕琢精妙,可用可赏,故又称作文玩。 .+

  明代屠隆在《文具雅编》中记述有四十多种文房用品,大家如果有闲暇,不妨细细去琢磨一下。接下来,去明伦堂。

  明伦堂是此院的主建筑,当年这里是高级老师讲课之所,现在开辟为孔子生平展。

In addition to the "four treasures", traditional Chinese stationery, including a lot of auxiliary stationery, such as arm rest, ink cartridges, ink pad, ink pad, etc., these materials, jade, stone, gold, silver, copper , iron, ivory, and so on, different shapes, exquisite carving, can be used for appreciation, it is also known as wenwan. .+

In the Ming Dynasty, Tu Long described more than forty kinds of stationery supplies in the "Stationery Yabian". If you have leisure, you may wish to ponder it. Next, go to Minglun Hall.

Ming Lun Tang is the main building of this school. It was the place where senior teachers gave lectures. Now it is opened as a life exhibition for Confucius.

  明伦堂内正中央屏风上所雕的是布衣形象的孔子,据唐代著名画家吴道子之作而雕,旁边这幅对联是“博学笃志中庸治世,切问近思大道修身”告诉人应该用儒家思想的最高境界中庸之道来治国,以此建立和谐和平社会,但管理者在拥有才华的同时还应该有很高的道德水平,“大道修身”当两全齐美德齐兼备之时不应忘记横批上的四个字“一以贯之”

  孔子是山东曲阜人,生于公元前551年,卒于公元前479年,享年73岁,他的一生并不是很平坦,今天后人对他的推崇和尊敬也是他生前未料到的。

Confucius, the image of the cloth, was carved on the central screen of the Minglun Hall. According to the works of the famous painter Wu Daozi of the Tang Dynasty, the couplet is next to the "Establishing the History of the World, Asking the Way to Slim" and telling people that it should To establish a harmonious and peaceful society by governing the country with the highest realm of Confucianism, but managers should have a high moral level while possessing talents, and “the road to self-cultivation” should not be used when both sides are perfect. It should be forgotten that the four words in the horizontal batch are "one consistent"

Confucius was a native of Qufu, Shandong Province. He was born in 551 BC and died in 479 BC. At the age of 73, his life was not very flat. Today's esteem and respect for him are also unanticipated during his lifetime.


  孔夫子将他的一生概括为6个阶段,“吾十有五而志于学,三十而立、四十而不惑、五十而知天命、六十而耳顺、七十而随心所欲,不逾矩”这是一个粗略的人生坐标,在这个坐标上有几个重要阶段值得我们特别注意,究竟圣人所描绘的这个人生坐标对我们今天来讲有什么借鉴意义?

  每个人都有理由去描述自己的理想,但这一切都要从社会化进程开始从一自然人转化为一个有社会规则制约的人,这就是学习的起点,孔子嘴里的“吾十有五而志于学”是他的学习起点,也是他对学生的一种要求,那么,在今天,什么样的学习才是最有效的?只有导致一个人整个价值体系重塑,行为方式改变得有效率,更敏捷,更合乎社会要求的学习才是好的学习。在这个信息时代的今天,我们要学的东西实在太多,现在学生不过“十五学”很多比五岁还要早就开始学习了,为什么呢?不少孩子会背圆周率,会背几十首几十首长诗等,但是这些对他们的一生真有用吗?这些向学是孔子所说的“为己之学”“学以致用”吗?“过犹不及”也是孔子的观点,再好的东西都有他的度,与其贪多嚼不烂,还不如把有限的知识融会贯通,孔子又说:“学而不思则罔,思而不学则怠”一定要边学边想运用,经过这样的学习、历练,逐渐地提升自己有所感悟,这样就走到了三十岁。

Confucius summed up his life into six stages. "I have five and five ambitions to learn, thirty are standing, forty is not confusing, fifty is knowing destiny, sixty is pleasing, seventy is free, and it is not overwhelming. "This is a rough life coordinate. There are several important stages in this coordinate that deserve our special attention. What is the reference to the life coordinates depicted by the saints for us today?

Everyone has reason to describe their own ideals, but all of them must start from the process of socialization and transform from a natural person to a person with social rules. This is the starting point of learning, and there are five in my mouth. "Being willing to learn" is his starting point for learning, and also a requirement for his students. So, what kind of learning is the most effective today? Only learning that leads to the reshaping of a person's entire value system, behavioral change, efficiency, more agility, and socially responsive learning is good learning. Today in this information age, there are so many things we have to learn. Nowadays, students are learning more than the age of five, but why? Many children will recite the pi, and will recite dozens of dozens of long poems, etc., but are these really useful for their life? These studies are what Confucius said as "learning for oneself" and "learning to use it"? "It’s too late to be too much." Confucius’s point of view is that even the best things have his degree. Instead of chewing on it, it’s better to combine limited knowledge. Confucius said: “If you don’t think, then you don’t think, but you don’t learn. "You must learn while you want to use it. After such learning and experience, you gradually improve your feelings, and you will be thirty years old."

  从“而立”之年步入了孔夫子所说的“不惑”之年,这应当是人生最好的一段时光,但每个人到了四十岁都能做到不惑吗?在现代社会,四十岁的中年人上有老下有小,工作上已经成为骨干,压力又非常大,在这样的环境中怎样才能做到内心不惶惑呢?一个人在三十岁以前是用加法生活的就是不断地从这个世界上收集他所需要的东西,比如经验、财富、情感、名誉等。但是物质上的东西越多,人就越容易迷惑,三十岁以后,就要开始用减法生活,要学会舍弃那些不是你心灵所需要的东西,那些不想交的朋友舍掉,不想做的事情拒绝,不要挣的钱不要,当敢于放弃,知道如何舍弃的时候才真正接近了不惑的状态,那么什么是不惑?就是人能够自觉按照中庸的理念去思念行事,即使外部世界给你许多不公平、打击,但你也能在一个坐标上迅速建立起自己应有的位置。

  孔子所说的“知天命”,是人们常说的“命中有时终须有,命中无时莫强求”一个人到了五十岁就要知天命了吗?要回答这个问题首先要明白“知天命”是什么意思。“知天命”关键在于“知”字,要能够了解什么是自己的天命,当你真正认识到命运中的穷与富,人世间的好与坏,知道这一切都是很自然,那么你就能理性把握平静对待,用内心的一种定力去应对外界,可以做到不怨天、不尤人、不为外物所动,达到一种融合和提升,到了这种境界,也就该进入“耳顺”境界了。

From the year of "standing" into the year of Confucius's "no confusion", this should be the best time in life, but can everyone be confused when they are forty? In modern society, the 40-year-old middle-aged man has a small age, a job has become a backbone, and the pressure is very large. How can you be tempted in such an environment? A person who lives in Addition before the age of 30 is constantly collecting what he needs from the world, such as experience, wealth, emotion, reputation, and so on. But the more material things, the more easily people are confused. After the age of 30, they will start to use subtractive life. They must learn to abandon those things that are not what your heart needs, those that you don’t want to give up, things you don’t want to do. Refused, don't earn money, don't want to give up, know how to give up when you really get close to the state of no confusion, then what is not? That is, people can consciously follow the doctrine of the mean to think about acting. Even if the outside world gives you many unfair and blows, you can quickly establish your own position on a coordinate.

Confucius’s "knowing the destiny" is what people often say, "The hits must be there at the end, and the hits are forever." When a person reaches the age of 50, will he know the destiny? To answer this question, we must first understand what it means to know. The key to "knowing the destiny" lies in the word "know". To be able to understand what is your destiny, when you truly realize the poverty and wealth in the destiny, the good and the bad in the world, know that all this is natural, then you Being able to rationally grasp the calm treatment and use the inner strength of a certain force to deal with the outside world can be done without blaming the sky, not being especially human, not moving by foreign objects, reaching a kind of integration and promotion. Enter the realm of "ears".

  “耳顺”就是无论什么样都能听进去,都能站在发言者的立场去想问题,但是在现实生活中,我们经常会遇到不顺心的事,听到不想听的话,如何真正做到耳顺呢?“耳顺”就是能够做到最大限度地尊重他人理解任何一种事情存在的道理,能虚心倾听各种声音,站在别人的立场上去了解他为什么这样说,这种境界用中国文字来表述就是“悲天悯人”。

  穿过明伦堂,科举博物馆门前有鳌头石,寓意独占鳌头,给大家提供取景拍照之地。

  科举博物馆的馆址原是平遥城内规模最大的书院,在创建之时平遥的社会经济已不同于康熙年间,但是晋商的突飞猛进发展,票号银行业的兴起,他们的捐助,使得这个书院才如虎添翼,日益兴旺,晋商能有这样的善举原因何在?一方面“急公好义,造福桑梓”的儒学观念,是他们创建书院的思想基础,另一方面经商能暴富利益的强力驱动,促成了弃儒就商的风习形成,但晋地的弃儒并非完全放弃了读书而是把千百年读书做官成就功名的途经变了,通过经商也能光宗耀祖,扬名四方,通过经商也能过上锦衣玉食的日子,通过经商,也能“捐官”。

"Early Shun" is that no matter what you can listen to, you can stand on the speaker's position to think about the problem, but in real life, we often encounter things that don't go well. If you don't want to hear it, how can you really do it? What about ear? "Early Shun" is the principle that can maximize the respect for others to understand the existence of any kind of thing, can listen to all kinds of voices humbly, and stand on the stand of others to understand why he said this. This kind of realm is expressed in Chinese characters. Sad and sorrowful."

Through the Minglun Hall, there is a tassel stone in front of the Imperial Examination Museum, which means that it is the best place to take pictures.

The site of the Imperial Examination Museum was originally the largest academy in Pingyao City. At the time of its creation, Pingyao’s social economy was different from that of Kangxi. However, the rapid development of the Shanxi merchants, the rise of the banking industry, and their donations made this school If the tiger is more powerful and more prosperous, what are the reasons for Jin’s good deeds? On the one hand, the Confucianism concept of "emergency and good fortune, benefiting the mulberry" is the ideological foundation for their creation of the academy. On the other hand, the powerful driving force of the wealthy interests of the business can promote the formation of the style of abandoning the Confucianism, but the promotion of the land. Abandoning Confucianism did not completely abandon the study, but changed the way of thousands of years of reading and making official achievements. Through business, you can also be a patriarch of Guangzong, famous for the four parties, and through business, you can also live on the days of jewellery, and through business, you can also Donate to the official."

  超山书院的创建有朝廷返回的1200多两百银,其余大多是城内名大商号票号日升昌、百川通、协同庆等捐赠的,富商们把目光投向本县的教育事业,就使兴办书院的经济来源有了保障,仅创建时间的启动资金就1万两百银,存在票号年息650两,保证了每年的办学开支。

  足够的办学资金,当然能使书院聘来名师,曾在这里担任的11位山长都是进士出身,许多丰富的社会阅历和官海经验,名师自然出高徒不但为平遥培养出许多进士、举人,而且更为晋商的发展输送了大量的管理人才,据说,曾在这里贡献最大的山长徐继畬老先生开官离开时,挟道迎送的人们长达几十里,其中各大商号、票号纷纷为他送来匾额,礼物,一些当地很有名望的商人也都亲自欢送,以表谢意。

  书院是一个县同国家科举考试接轨的教学场所,孩童的启蒙教育基层教育都得在这里进行,但在平遥当地受“学而优则商”思想的影响,书院除了要教会学生必背的四书五经,更多的时间要用于学习书法、珠算、社交等知识,这也是后人所说的晋商成功的经商三样法宝。

The establishment of the Chaoshan Academy has more than 1,200 and two hundred silvers returned by the court. Most of the rest are donated by the city's famous trade names, such as Rishengchang, Baichuantong, and Synergy, and the wealthy businessmen turned their attention to the education of the county. The economic source of the establishment of the college has been guaranteed. The start-up capital of the creation of the time is only 12,000 yuan, and there is a ticket number of 650 per year, which guarantees the annual school expenses.

Sufficient funds for running a school can of course enable the college to hire famous teachers. The 11 mountain leaders who have served here are all from Jinshi. Many rich social experiences and official sea experience. The famous teachers naturally cultivated many scholars and people for Pingyao. Moreover, the development of Shanxi merchants has sent a large number of management talents. It is said that when Mr. Xu Jizhen, the oldest minister who once contributed here, left the official residence, the people who greeted the martyrdom for dozens of miles, among which the major firms, The ticket number has sent him plaques, gifts, and some well-known local businessmen have also personally sent away, to express their gratitude.

The academy is a teaching place where the county is in line with the national civil examinations. Children's primary education in the enlightenment education has to be carried out here. However, in Pingyao, influenced by the idea of ​​“learning and doing business”, the college has to teach students four books. The Five Classics, more time to learn calligraphy, abacus, social and other knowledge, this is also the three magic weapon of the success of the Shanxi merchants.

  商贾乐于助学,学生热衷经商,使平遥商业和教育的发展形成互动关系,是清代平遥超山书院的儒学教育特色。

  现在利用整个书院的旧址开辟为中国科举博物馆,接下来我们一一了解。

  科举中式,是古代学子们出人头地的唯一途径。因为一旦成功,从此飞黄腾达,光宗耀祖。但是中式是极不容易的,先后是经过大小十几场考试,经历数十年的奋斗战胜一批批的对手,真正的过五关斩六将后才能脱颖而出。可想而知,考取状元是需要“头悬梁,锥刺骨”、“三更灯火、五更鸣”吃得苦中苦,方为人上人。


Merchants are willing to help students, students are keen to do business, and make the development of Pingyao business and education form an interactive relationship. It is the Confucian education feature of Pingyao Chaoshan Academy in the Qing Dynasty.

Now use the entire site of the entire academy to open up for the Chinese Imperial Examination Museum, and then we will understand one by one.

The Chinese imperial examination is the only way for the ancient students to get ahead. Because once successful, from then on, the glory of the ancestors. However, the Chinese style is extremely difficult. It has been a dozen or so examinations of a large and small scale. After decades of struggle, it has defeated a batch of opponents. Only after the five passes will be able to stand out. It can be imagined that it is necessary to take the "head cantilever, cone and bone", "three more lights, five more sounds" to eat hard and bitter, and to be a person.


  科举考试始于隋,确立于唐,完备于宋,兴盛于明清,前后使用了1300余年的时间。其实,科举考试之前我国历史上的各个朝代都有其特定的取仕方式。尧、舜、禹时代的帝王禅让制;西汉时的世袭制等,但这些制度的人为因素太多,在隋朝着开科举先河。

  科举考试分为文举和武举。考试的程序是由三级考试乡试、会试和殿试进行。

  平遥晋商称雄华夏,全靠一批开疆拓土的有识之士的纵横驰骋,而这些有胆有识的商界俊杰,都离不开文庙学宫的培养,离不开文庙儒学的强大智力支撑。

The imperial examination began in Tang, established in the Tang Dynasty, completed in the Song Dynasty, prospered in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and used more than 1300 years before and after. In fact, before the imperial examinations, each dynasty in the history of our country had its own way of taking the official. The imperial chanting system of the 尧, 舜, and 禹 dynasties; the hereditary system of the Western Han Dynasty, etc., but the human factors of these systems are too many, and they are moving toward the opening of the imperial examination.

The imperial examinations are divided into texts and martial arts. The test procedure is conducted by the third-level test, the test, and the test.

Pingyao Jinshang is the hero of China, and it relies on a group of people of insight who are open to the outside world. These well-thought-out businessmen are inseparable from the cultivation of the Confucian Temple and cannot be separated from the Confucianism of the Confucian Temple. Intellectual support.


  自古以来,文能治国,武能安邦。唐代武则天首开了先河——武举。但武举的考试科目分外场与内场。说白了就是今天的实践和理论。外场考:马射、步箭、马射、负重、要求弓必开满,刀必舞花,石必离地一尺;内场考《孙子》、《司马法》、《武经》论一篇。考试的程序和文举一样,也分三级考试乡试、会试和殿试进行。据统计,在1300年科举考试中,文状元产生了700多名,武状元产生了77名。 “学得文武艺,报予帝王家。”这是每一位武状元的职责,橱柜中还展有古兵器、古皮夹,状元及第的铜锁、铜镜、铭花钱。还有清代的各种异形铜锁、如鱼形、狗形、猴形,作工十分精细。

  东学宫已开辟为平遥国际摄影博物馆。这是全国目前唯一的专业性摄影博物馆展出了很多名家的摄影作品和老照片,每一幅作品都在通过摄影来释放生命的力量。

  平遥文庙学宫的参观就先告一段落,谢谢大家的支持与配合,不足之处请提出,也希望能用您的口啤把我们文庙学宫“晋商人才殿堂”宣传出去,欢迎下次光临!

Since ancient times, Wen can rule the country, Wu Neng Anbang. Wu Zetian in the Tang Dynasty opened the first river - Wuju. However, the examination subjects of Wuju are divided into the field and the infield. To put it bluntly is today's practice and theory. Outfield test: horse shooting, step arrow, horse shooting, weight bearing, asking for the bow to be full, the knife will dance, the stone will be one foot away from the ground; the infield test "Sun Zi", "Sima Law", "Wu Jing" . The procedures for the examinations are the same as those for the texts. They are also divided into three levels of examinations, examinations, and examinations. According to statistics, in the 1300 examinations, the number of literary champions was more than 700, and the number of martial arts champions was 77. "Learning the martial arts, report to the emperor's family." This is the duty of every military champion, the cabinet also displays ancient weapons, ancient wallet, champion and the first copper lock, bronze mirror, Minghua money. There are also various shaped copper locks in the Qing Dynasty, such as fish-shaped, dog-shaped, and monkey-shaped, which are very fine.

Dongxue Palace has been opened as the Pingyao International Photography Museum. This is the only professional photography museum in the country that has exhibited many famous photographs and old photographs, each of which is releasing the power of life through photography.

The visit to Pingyao Confucian Temple is coming to an end. Thank you for your support and cooperation. Please suggest the inadequacies. I also hope that you can use our mouth beer to publicize our literary temple and the "Golden Merchants Hall". Welcome to visit next time. !


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